and most other European countries.”  According to McCann, the DPA “deals with the injustice of the situation if you have a large company that has a rogue senior official” who has committed a crime accusing the entire company.  McCann stated that the DPA was fair to investors in companies that were innocent of any fault.  Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) has adopted guidelines regarding the prosecution of organizations and businesses. Although they are normally used to resolve criminal proceedings, civil authorities such as the SEC have begun to use them in the same way. Perhaps because of the Arthur Andersen case – and the many innocent collaborators in distress as a result of these prosecutions – the resolution of a case by a DPA has become more common in recent years. .